Analytical laboratory

ANALYTICAL LABORATORY

The analytical laboratory plays a dual role within C2MI as it is contributing to both development support of new technologies / products / processes as well as to the development of uniformity control of the production processes over time. These analysis are performed to achieve a high quality standard for processes and products.

Failure analysis

The failure analysis can greatly help to solve problems of quality or reliability. These identify the underlying causes of these failures and help provide optimal corrective actions. Whether at the level of yield loss during manufacturing, to premature failure during reliability testing or customer return for a component not working properly, failure analyzes contribute to solving these problems. Several techniques are available to us to achieve this task.

 

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATIONS:

Manual probing station
The probe station utilizes manipulators which allow the precise positioning of thin needles on the surface of a semiconductor device. The mechanical probe station is often used in the failure analysis of semiconductor devices, and for electrical characterization of semiconductor componants.

Resistivity measures (high precision multimeter)
Multimeter is an electronic measuring instrument that combines several measurement functions in one unit. A typical multimeter would include basic features such as the ability to measure voltage, current and resistance. The high precision multimeter offers the possibility to characterize low resistances by the 4-wire (Kelvin) connection method.

Leakage measures (pAmper-meter)
An ammeter or pAmper-meter is a measuring instrument used to measure small electrical current in a circuit. The pAmpermeter is able to characterize leakage current in the picoampere range, hence the name.

Capacitance measures (LCR meter)
Electronic equipment used to measure the inductance (L), capacitance(C), and resistance(R) of a passive component.

Impedance measures (VNA)
Parametric Network Analyzer (PNA) or Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) is an electronic equipment used to characterize linear and nonlinear component at low or high frequency (10MHz to 67GHz).

Parameter measures (VNA)
L’analyseur paramétrique de réseau (PNA) ou l’analyseur de réseau vectoriel (VNA) est un équipement électronique utilisé pour caractériser le linéaire et le non linéaire de composantes à haute ou basse fréquence (10 MHz à 67GHz).

Dielectric constant measures (VNA)
Parametric Network Analyzer (PNA) or Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) is an electronic equipment used to characterize linear and nonlinear component at low or high frequency (10MHz to 67GHz).

Electrical continuity (curver tracers)
Curve tracer is an electronic test equipment used to stimulate the device under test (DUT). This equipment, based on an oscilloscope, can be used to analyze the characteristics of discrete semiconductor devices and to characterize the failure signature of a defective device.

 

NON-DESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION TECHNIQUES:

Time Domain Reflectory (TDR)
TDR is a non-destructive technique for IC package failure analysis. This technique sends a high frequency electrical pulse into the defective circuit in order to detect impedance variations related to the defect in the device under test (DUT), allowing to locate the defect.

Acoustic inspection

Chip/underfill delamination

Non-destructive inspection technique using ultrasound waves to produce layer interface images in a package. Used in microelectronic to detect packaging defects, such as delamination, porosity, cracked chip.

3D tomography X-Ray

3D Tomography: C4 defect

Non-destructive inspection technique using the X-Rays to produce 3D reconstruction image of a specific area of the scanned object. This technique is used to perform virtual slices of the scanned area allowing to see inside without cutting.

2D Real-Time X-Ray

Bridging and unbonded wire on chip

Non-destructive inspection technique using the X-Rays to see inside of an object. Used in microelectronic to detect bond and assembly defects, such as missing wire, solder bridge and bad device positioning.

Surface analysis

Surface analysis are used both for the crystallographic characterization, inspection at high magnification, the elemental composition as determining the cleanliness of a surface or the thickness of an oxide. These analyzes are essential to the understanding of failures for adhesion problems, wettability or premature mechanical failures:

Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
Electron microscope produces surface images (low & high magnification) of a sample by scanning it with a focused beam of electrons. The electron interact with atoms in the sample, producing various signals that can be detected. According detector used, information about the sample’s surface (SE detector), microstructure (EBSD) and composition (BSE & EDS) can be obtained.

Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD)
Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), also known as backscatter Kikuchi diffraction (BKD) is a microstructural-crystallographic technique used to examine the crystallographic orientation of many materials, which can be used to elucidate texture or preferred orientation of any crystalline or polycrystalline material.

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)
XPS, also known as ESCA (Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis), is a surface chemical analysis technique that can be used to analyze the surface chemistry of a material in its as-received state, or after some treatment. The X-Rays interact with the sample surface, giving a molecular chemical analysis of material present at the first atomic layers.

Contact Angle Goniometer
Goniometer is used to measure the contact angle through the liquid, where a liquid/vapor interface meets a solid surface. It quantifies the wettability of a solid surface by a liquid via the Young equation.

Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)
Type of scanning electron microscope used specifically in the study of the first atomic layers of a sample. This technique can be used to characterize the elemental chemical composition and determine the composition thickness of the top surface, such as oxide thickness.

Material characterization

Mechanical, physical and thermal characterization analysis can validate the materials components and meet the technical specifications required or understand and explain the problems of quality or reliability. Among the available techniques include:

Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES)
Quantitative chemical analysis technique, using a plasma source, is used to determine the composition of diverse material (alloy, water, plating bath, solder, flux, chemical product etc.). Capable of determining the concentrations of multiple elements simultaneously with a high detection limit: ppb (μg/L or μg/kg) range.

Ionography
Technique is used to quantify ionic residues on individual parts, complete assemblies or small devices. Used in microelectronic to characterize efficiency of cleaning process.

X-Ray Microfluorescence (µXRF)
X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is the emission of characteristic “secondary” (or fluorescent) X-rays from a material that has been excited by bombarding with high-energy X-rays or gamma rays. This non-destructive technique is widely used for elemental analysis and chemical analysis, such as process control of allow composition and plating thickness.

Thermal Desorption System-Gas Mass Spectrometer (TD GC/MS)
This technique allows to extract volatile organic compound (VOC) of a sample in a controlled manner to accumulate the gas within an absorption tube. The gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is used to separate, identify and quantify the VOC. Widely used to identify material outgassing from plastic, electronic material and chemical product that can cause process or even health problems.

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR)
Technique is used to obtain an infrared spectrum of absorption, emission, photoconductivity or Raman scattering of a solid, liquid or gas, for identification of organic contamination and organic material.

 

THERMAL ANALYSIS:

Flatness measurement (TherMoiré)
TherMoiré is used for the characterization of warpage and strain in function of temperature. The shadow Moiré and digital image correlation (DIC) techniques can perform measurement of in-plane and out-of-plane strain during thermal profile.

Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)
DSC is the most popular thermal analysis technique in which the physical property of a material is measured as a function of temperature. DSC is commonly used to measure glass transition temperature, melting and crystallization temperature, heat capacity, degree of cure and kinetic reaction.

Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA)
TGA is another thermal analysis technique in which the sample weight is measured in function of temperature. TGA is commonly used for thermal stability, kinetic and corrosion studies, composition analysis and simulation processes.

Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA)
DMA is used to measure the mechanical properties of a wide variety of materials and particularly the viscoelastic behavior of polymer. The primary measurements include modulus (storage, loss, complex, Young.s), damping, glass transition temperature and secondary transitions.

Thermo Mechanical Analysis (TMA)
TMA is a technique in which the change in the dimensions (length or volume) of a sample is measured as a function of temperature. TMA is commonly used to measure intrinsic material properties (e.g. coefficient of thermal expansion, glass transition temperature and softening temperature).

 

MECHANICAL ANALYSIS:

Pull test
Technique used for the characterization of bonds, solder joints, wires and substrate materials in the semiconductor and electronic manufacturing industry. The quality of bonds is evaluated by a controlled pull test, allowing to measure the required force and to characterize the fracture interface.

Shear test (high & low speed)
Technique used for the characterization of bonds, solder joints, wires and substrate materials in the semiconductor and electronic manufacturing industry. The quality of bonds is evaluated by a controlled shear test, allowing to measure the required force.

Mechanical fatigue testing system
Technique used for the characterization of mechanical properties of material. Axial, torsion, or combined axial-torsion tests can be done using this equipment.
SAMPLE PREPARATION:

Microsectioning
X-section is the most popular sample preparation technique for the characterization of material or package. Several techniques are available according the sample and the specific need:

  • Manual grinding table
  • Automatic polishing tool
  • Ion milling
  • Plasma-FIB

 

Decapsulation tool
Techniques used to remove organic material. Widely used in the microelectronic industry:

  • IR laser
  • Plastic etcher (wet etch)

 

Plasma Asher
Plasma technique produces a plasma from a process gas, typically oxygen or other gas, using a high frequency electric field. This technique can be used to remove organic residues in order to improve surface adhesion or as package deprocessing technique during failure analysis investigation:

  • Reactive Ion Etch (RIE – isotropic etch)
  • Barrel etcher (anisotropic etch)

Surface analysis

Scanning electron microscope (SEM)
X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)
Auger Electron spectroscopy (AES)
Contact Angle Goniometer

Failure analysis

Resitivity measures (2pts & 4pts)
Resitivity measures (2pts & 4pts)
Impedance measures
Capacitance measures
Leakage measures
Vector network analyzer (VPA / PNA)
S-Parameters / dielectric constance measures
Resitivity measures (2pts & 4pts)
Impedance measures
Short and Bias electrical test (module & card)

Mechanical testing

Vibration test
Impact shock
Axial-torsion servohydraulic fatigue testing system
Ball pull

Chemical analysis

UV visible spectrophotometer
Thermal desorption system-gas Chromatograph - mass spectometer (TD/GC/MS)
Thermal desorption system-gas Chromatograph - mass spectometer (TD/GC/MS)
Thermal desorption system-gas Chromatograph - mass spectometer (TD/GC/MS)
Gas chromatograph-flame ionization detector (GCFID)
Ion chromatography
Ionography
Fourier Transforn Infrared Spectroscopy - FTIR
Inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP)
X-Ray microfluorescence (XRF)

Thermal analysis

Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA)
Rheometer
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)
Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA)
Thermal topography (TherMoiré)
Thermo mechanical analysis (TMA)

Non-destructive inspection

Acoustic microscopy
3D Tomography X-Ray
Time domain reflectometry TDR
2D X-Ray

Microsectioning

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